Outline P. 661 – 666 and P. 727 – 729
Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East
· Lord Cromer = high commissioner
o Implemented economic reforms that reduced the Khevite deficit.
o Reformed bureaucracy.
o Increased public works.
o Benefitted from the reforms:
§ Turco-Egyptian political elite
§ Small Egyptian bourgeoisie
§ Ayan landlords
· Under British rule, the Ayans were as powerful as Russian landlords during Peter and Catherine’s rule.
· Effendi – important and prosperous business families
· Egyptian journalists led the nationalist movement.
o Newspapers exposed British injustice; widespread.
o First nationalist party was formed in the 1890s.
§ Many rival parties sprang up.
§ By 1907, there were three main alternatives.
· Dinshawai incident – an incident of extreme repression by British officials, destroyed all support for their presence in Egypt.
o British officers were shooting pigeons and show the prayer leader's wife. The Egyptians were aggravated, and after they retaliated the British hung four Egyptians and demanded all Egyptians involved be punished.
o Gave cause to protests across communal and social boundaries.
§ Ayans began to join the nationalist cause.
· By 1913, the British awarded Egyptians the right to a constitution and representation in Parliament.
War and Nationalist Movements in the Middle East
· Mustafa "Ataturk" Kemal
o Galvanized the Turks.
o Repelled Greek attacks.
o Established Turkey in 1923.
o Began large-scale reforms / westernization.
§ Latin alphabet,
§ Women rights
· Young Turks supported the Central Powers.
o Entente powers prevail and infringe upon Arab autonomy.
§ Create mandates.
o Nationalist movements increased during the 1920s and 1930s
§ Especially in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine, and the Levant.
· The Balfour Declaration – approved by the British War Cabinet, promised Zionists right to Palestine (postwar, 1917).
o Conflicted with the promises given to Hussein and other Arab leaders.
o Many Zionists began campaigns to return to the “promised land” to establish a Jewish state.
§ Society for the Colonization of Israel – late 1800s
§ World Zionist Organization, (Theodor Herzl)
· Pogroms – Violent persecution of Jews in Russia and Romania; caused Jewish diaspora.
· Western European Jews disregarded Zionism since they were comfortable where they were.
· British establishment of Arab leadership in Palestine caused Zionists to be suspicious of their policies.
· They formed a rag-tag army to defend themselves from violent Arab incursions.
Revolt in Egypt, 1919
· Declared a protectorate in 1914.
o Was excluded from the promise to Hussein.
· Martial law was put in place to protect the Suez from jihadist Arabs.
o Food supply was put under enormous stress.
· A delegation of Egyptians was denied audience at Versailles.
o Large demonstrations in opposition quickly turned into insurgency.
§ British repressed the violent insurgency, but conceded to the Wafd party led by Sa'd Zaghul due to its overwhelming support.
· Withdrawal of Egypt began in 1922 and ended in 1936
o Reserved the right to reoccupy.
o Preserved the khedival regime.
· The Wafd, Liberal Constitutionalist and Union parties failed to provide relief to the peasantry
· Decolonization of Egypt.

Outline P. 798 – 801, P. 802 – 804

Military Responses: Dictatorships and Revolutions
· Military officials used the force at their disposal with little regards to collateral damage.
o Western Gov’ts supported them due to their opposition to communism.
· Banned civilian political parties.
· Implemented martial law with varying levels of repression and authoritarianism.
o Uganda, Myanmar, and Congo experience regimes that crushed civil liberties without reducing social inequities or improving living standards
o Known for corruption, torture, imprisonment, etc.
· Gamal Abdul Nasser took power in Egypt by means of military coup in 1952.
o Free Officers movement – radical movement by young Egyptian officers that successfully gained power led by the secret Revolutionary Command Council, allied with the Muslim Brotherhood (alternative to the khedival regime).
o Influenced by the failures in the Arab-Israeli War of 1948 / Israeli occupation of the Suez Canal.
· Muslim brotherhood was established in 1928 by reform-minded student of Muhammad Abduh, Hasan al-Banna, a reformist student of Muhammad Abduh, founded the Muslim brotherhood in 1928.
o Focused on social reform
o Utilized terrorism and organized mass demostrations and riots
o al-Banna was assassinated in 1949, but the party continued to expand influence
o Disbanded by 1954 after an attempt at Nasser's life

Leader Analysis

Name of Leader: Nasser
Lifespan: 1918 – 1970
Title: President
Country/Region: Egypt
Years in Power: 1956 – 1970
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power:
  • Farouk I was the previous leader; he was a corrupt ruler.
  • The Egyptian Revolution forced many changes upon the nation.
  • Farouk was removed from power as a result of the revolution.
Ideology, Motivation, Goals:
  • Supported militarism and was previously a military leader.
  • Fought for Arab independence.
  • Encouraged Arab nationalism and national identity.
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power:
  • He redistributed the land and began to industrialize the nation through strategic planning.
  • Initialized construction of the Aswan Dam.
  • Attempted a push for Arab independence.
  • Nasser blocked the Suez Canal after joint attacks on Egypt.
  • Negotiated for Arab nations to reduce oil exports to Western Europe.
  • Aligned Egypt with Syria to form United Arab Republic; followed by Yemen which then became the United States.
Short-Term effects:
  • Considered the leader of the Arab World during his reign.
Long-Term Effects:
  • Egyptians had a sense of national identity; nationalism.
  • Creation of the Aswan Dam.

Leader Analysis

Name of Leader: Ruhollah Khomeini Ayatollah
Lifespan: 1902 – 1989
Title: Supreme Leader
Country/Region: Iran
Years in Power: 1979 – 1989
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power:

· Khomeini believed that the government was an un-Islamic and illegitimate institution.
· He launched his crusade against the shah's regime in 1962.
· This crusade lead to rebellion and was a turning point in the Iranian Islamic movement.
· Many different groups fought to shape the course of the Revolution, and all sections of society were changed by it.
· The old order, which Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar had struggled to sustain, finally died.
· Was replaced by new experimental institutions, new forms of expression, and a new social and political order.
Ideology, Motivation, Goals:
  • Devoutly religious.
  • Extremely respected religious leader.
  • Famously opposed the Shah’s government.
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power:
  • Dominated the political sector and ruled with an iron fist.
  • Led all religious events in Iran; very strict ruler.
Short-Term effects:

· Combined politics and religion while in power.
Long-Term Effects:
  • Responsible for the idea of the modern Islamic jihad.
  • Popularly referred to as founder of the modern Shiite state.
  • Iranians still revere him and pay homage to his grave on the anniversary of his death.

Throughout WWI and WWII, the Middle East was a region of extreme instability and chaos in the political sector. Revolution was commonplace and leaders routinely were uprooted. The Sykes Picot Agreement, formed during WWI by British and French officials, allowed the French and British to divide up the disorganized and fragmented Middle East for their own economic gains. Newly formed states installed new governments, but the British and French assumed control of many of them as well. Their main concern was with their own oil needs. Large portions of the world were becoming dependent on the Middle East as a source of oil. Consequently, this gave the British and French a substantial amount of power and influence on the world. The Arabs in these occupied nations were not pleased with the imperial powers’ greed and revolutionary thoughts began. Ideas like Arab nationalism and Arab independence became a major influence on society. Revolutions were held in attempts to somehow get out of Western regimes. Egypt established their own government with Nasser as president following the revolution. One of his main goals was to reduce oil exports to the West. Worried about Nasser’s intentions, European nations plotted a way to replace him (which they did). Growing tensions of the mid 1900s eventually caused fragmentation, nonetheless, all Middle Eastern land were essentially autonomous. The borders of the Middle East are what we seen today because of it.