Outline: Challenging the Raj and Winning Independence (P. 657 - 661 and 722 - 723)
  • Indian nationalist movement became a model for other nations.
    • Peaceful protest
    • Led by Western-educated elites.
  • The National Congress Party governed the post-colonial country.
    • Created a national identity.
    • Western-educated Indians
    • Formed in 1885
    • High ranking British officials
    • An attempt to prevent political protest
  • British racism toward Indians.
    • Thought to be due to the typically low salaries and limited opportunities of Indians.
  • The army accounted for a chunk of the Indian government's budget.
  • BG Tilak, a leading Indian nationalist.
    • Thought nationalism should be based on Hindu appeals. (Largest portion of population)
    • Worked to promote the revival of Hinduism
    • Tilak's removal and repression campaigns against terrorists allowed politicians greater influence.
  • Morely-Minto reforms (1909)
    • Provided educated Indians with expanded opportunities.
    • Could vote or serve on all-India legislative councils.
  • Montagu- Chelmsford reforms (1919)
    • Increased the powers of the Indian legislators.
    • Placed much of the provincial administration of India under their control.
  • Rowlatt Act places restrictions on Indian civil rights like freedom of the press.
    • Local protests during and after the war.
  • Gandhi's satyagraha -"The Truth Force".
    • Led boycotts / protest.
    • The nonviolent method of mass civil disobedience pleased moderates and radicals.
    • Hindered the mobilization of the British military.
  • Quit India Movement (1942)
    • Protesting campaign; Promoted civil disobedience.
  • Muslim Move
    • Muslim's wanted a seperate state to prevent themselves from descending to the social level of Hindus.

Leader Analysis Sheet

Name of Leader: Ghandi
Lifespan: 1869 – 1948 CE
Title: Mahatama (Great Soul)
Country/region: India
Years in Power: President of the National Congress Party (1921 – 1948 CE)
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power:
· British Occupation stifled world trade due to foreign policy.
· Constructed a well developed communication and transportation system (railways and telegraphs).
· Used to further the British economy.
  • Inflation and famine during war.
  • British awarded Indian’s with small amounts of influence/control in their gov’t
  • Radicalism / militant activity.
Ideology, Motivation, Goals:
· Introduced many movements and struggles like the Civil Disobedience Movement, The Dandhi March, The Non-cooperation Movement, Direct Action, Salt Satyagraha, etc.
· Never resorted to violence and never accepted failure in his life. Believed perseverance was the key to attaining goals. Such as his goal of freeing India from British occupation/rule.
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power:
· The movement’s listed above, and Gandhi’s assassination on January 30th 1948.
Short-Term effects:
· Population united under one leader for a common purpose.
· Protests and anti-colonial ideas ran rampant.
Long-Term Effects:
· India was freed from British rule
· Caste system dissolved.
· Pakistan was founded.

Wordle: Untitled