Primary Source Analysis


Author – Who created this? What do we know about the author? What might influence their opinions?
Pericles, Athenian General
Place – Where and when was it created -
Peloponnesian War, In the winter of 431-430 B.C.E.
Prior Knowledge
What do we know about where this was created? What have we learned about this topic? Society that may be relevant?
Created in Athens to recount the war. Athens was a very cultural city-state. Was a rival state with Sparta for dominance. More proud of arts, politics and literature than military prowess.
Who is the intended audience? How might they receive this? – quotes to support your claims?
The intended audience is most likely his peers in Athens, but could expand to all of Greece. They might find it interesting account of the situation in Athens; Spartans would say it’s biased and inaccurate.
"If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our antagonists. We throw open our city to the world, and never pass laws to exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing, although the eyes of the enemy may occasionally profit from our liberality…”
Reason for Creation
What is the purpose of this document? Read between the lines, support claims with a quote
To have a written history and report of the Peloponnesian war. To compare and contrast the two rival city-states.
"In generosity we are equally singular, acquiring our friends by conferring, not receiving, favors.”
In education, where our rivals from their very cradles seek after manliness through a very painful discipline, at Athens we live as we please, and yet are just as ready to encounter every legitimate danger.”
The Main Idea
Support with quotes
To compare and contrast the two rival city-states and provide a history of the war.
“For there is justice in the claim that steadfastness in his country's battles should be as a cloak to cover a man's other imperfections…”

“We throw open our city to the world, and never pass laws to exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing, although the eyes of the enemy may occasionally profit from our liberality.”
How does this relate to the big picture? What can it tell us as historians? Relate to ESPIRIT if possible
The war was fought by two rival city-states with very different traditions. The war stories will thus, have different perspectives and biases.

Primary Source Analysis

Document: Plutarch on Life in Sparta

Author – Who created this? What do we know about the author? What might influence their opinions?
Plutarch, Greek historian, optimist,  traveled all over the medditeranean
Place – Where and when was it created -
Corinth, (within his lifetime)
Prior Knowledge
What do we know about where this was created? What have we learned about this topic? Society that may be relevant?
Sparta was a military state at all times. Tyranny ruled the people of Sparta. Greece was still broken up into city-states. Polytheistic religion; mythology
Who is the intended audience? How might they receive this? – quotes to support your claims?
All people to look back on and analyze (and be historians). Anyone looking back at the accounts of Sparta would most likely be surprised at the way people lived in the city-state and what the people tolerated.
“He withdrew all gold and silver money from currency, and ordained the use of iron money only. It was not possible, therefore, to buy any foreign wares…”
Reason for Creation
What is the purpose of this document? Read between the lines, support claims with a quote
To recount the miserable and absolute conditions upon which the Spartans lived.
“For their marriages the women were carried off by force, not when they were small and unfit for wedlock, but when they were in full bloom and wholly ripe.”
“…as soon as the boys were seven years old, Lycurgus ordered them all to be taken by the state and enrolled in companies…”
The Main Idea
Support with quotes
The Spartan system that Lycurgas created was absolute, drastic, and brutally efficient.
“Of reading and writing, they learned only enough to serve their turn; all the rest of their training was calculated to make them obey commands well, endure hardships, and conquer in battle.”

“No man was allowed to live as he pleased, but in their city, as in a military encampment, they always had a prescribed regimen and employment in public service, considering that they belonged entirely to their country and not to themselves.”
How does this relate to the big picture? What can it tell us as historians? Relate to ESPIRIT if possible
This tells you that the Spartan people were powerless on their own. Each person was born into a system that Lycurgas created to make them serve the state. It was simply blind patriotism.


Athens and Sparta Comparitive Summary
Although the competing city states of Sparta and Athens were individually different as well as governmentally diverse, they both became dominating powers in Ancient Greece. Spartan life was simple. The focus was on obedience and war. Young boys were trained to be warriors; young girls were trained to be mothers of warriors. However as an Athenian, you could get a good education and could pursue any of several kinds of arts or sciences. Men could serve in the army or navy, but didn't have to like in Sparta. Spartan military rank was determined by a person's performance after entering the army, but in the Athenian military a soldier's rank was decided by his social or economic status before he enlisted. Ruled by an oligarchy, the Spartan military state had a stable government, which led to political stagnation. A duel monarchy was at the top of the pecking order, followed by a council of two kings and twenty-eight noblemen. All these men were retired from the military. Athens was a democracy, ruled by the people. A Council had both executive and administrative control. Members of the council were chosen by lots every year. Any male citizen over the age of thirty was eligible to be chosen. An assembly, made up of all male citizens, had veto power over the Council. The Assembly was also the only branch of the government which could declare war. Thus, while Sparta was ruled by only a few of its men, Athens was ruled by all of its male citizens. Surprisingly, Athenian women were much worse off than Spartan women and forced to stay indoors at all times. They were controlled by their fathers during childhood and by their husbands after marriage. In contrast, Spartan women were required by state policy to have an academic and physical education and were very free throughout their lives. Sparta sustained itself through agriculture alone. The comparison between Athens and Sparta is a story of two cultures with drastic difference in ideologies, customs, forms of governance, and the basic social order.
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Laid the foundation for modern civilization.
In athens 500bce the people turn on rulers. Clysthenese (c. 570bce), a nobleman (aristocrat), thought that all ordinary people should be able to govern themselves. Athens was built around the Acropolis, was a stronghold easy to defend. Life expectancy of the masses was less than 15 years and back then science and math weren't thouhgt of and reading and writing was a rare skill. Athens was ruled by a small aristocratic elite. In clysthenese's time there were over 1000 city-states jostled for power. in the early 6th century bce, Argos was oldest, Carinthians wee trade dominant, and Sparta was the dominant military power. Athens had little power back then. Spartan food was gross.
Sparta conquered other city states and made the peoples into helots. Every year they declared war on the enslaved helots to practice their military prowess. Ancient tales were important to greece. Storytellers, or Bonds, memorize over a million lines of poetry to pass on and recount to whoever would listen (The illiad, the odyssey).

He came to rule them by saying he was guarded by Athena. Pisistratus reduced taxes and allowed the people to build up their farms. Athenians were allowed to prosper and the land began to be richer. The olives in athens were the best in the world and there was much prosperity to be made form them. Athens was in the perfect spot to begin exporting olive oil over seas. Pisistratus rule of benevolent tyranny ended in bce. His son Hippias began as a kind ruler but then became a true tyrant. Hippias killed the murderers of his brother and tortured one of their wives. His rule became harsher as he executed and banished many. Hippias feared the aristocrats would revolt against his unjust rule. So Cleisthenes assembled a conspiracy and decided to revolt and gain power for his family. in 510 BCE, Clysthenese gained the power he wanted and banished Hippias. Now everyone could strive for power in athens. As soon as Clysthenese gained power others were already conspiring against him. Isagarus turned to Sparta for support in his coup and sparta sent its best troops. Isagarus gained control and ruled with his spartan allies. He targeted other aristocrats and cast them out of athens. The ordinary people revolted against this dictatorship and started a revolution.
for the first time in recorded history the people took control from the ruling class.
Clysthenese was recalled from exile after the expulsion of the spartans and was asked to create a government. Clysthenese had to design a revolutionary new governental system. He introduced the simple voting sysytem, the rule of the people, democracy.
everyone had a say in things like road setting, war declarations,etc. Persia saw the growth of Athens as a threat amassed a tremendous assault force.

Fun facts

Pottery, paticularly the vase, began to develop a brand new style of painting. To the potters the art was a way of outdoing eachother and today they're worth alot. In olympia, the games (Olympics -776 BCE) were a great attraction and the skills required were to test the heroism of the competitors. Anyone could compete. Largest gatherings of Peaceful greeks for a while. Women were prohibited from entering or attending the olympics.

Thesis statement, Key factors in the development of Athens

Athens development into the powerful and influential city-state was due to its cultural traditions linking politics to heroism, the drastically different classes, and their geographic location.

ESPIRIT Chart Civilization: Roman Empire Time Period:

Roman economy depended on the free labor of slaves, the advancement of agriculture, and the rapid expansion of commercial agriculture.
- Roman farmers, like Greek farmers, grew olives and grapes, which became the staples of Roman agriculture
- Staple crops required lots of funding; led to growth in farmer debt which led to tenant farmers and aristocratic control.
- Colonies in all areas of the Mediterranean allowed for advancements in commercial agriculture and strengthened the Roman empire.
- Roman colonies in North Africa and Sicily were a valuable source of grain (breadbasket).
- Every Roman colony was used for some sort of economic gain.
- Slavery provided the free labor used to maintain and expand Roman cities .
- Rome's social structure was based on ones heredity, wealth and property, and citizenship.

- The classes were subdivided (Richest to poorest)
- Senatorial class (mostly senators, upper class
), equestrians (business/farming, middle class), proletarii (no property), and slaves

- Class bounderies were strict and enforced, different classes shouldn't interact with one another.

- People wore clothes appropriate to their classes; wealth and stature.

- Most middle class people were farmers, with their own communities; under the control of aristocrats.

- Slaves from conqured nations were the lowest class and were forced to labor and build to keep Rome strong.

- Women were subordinate to men and were expected to stay in the home; no career or freedom (not citizens).
- Husbands were allowed to severely punish their wives; women could divorce at a cost of 1/3 of their property (land).

- Families with too many children would kill the female babies to make way for sons.
Roman government, for most of its history, was a strange mix of a democracy and a republic, based on greek government.
- Class struggles in the Roman Republic led to a strange mixture of democracy and oligarchy.
- Rome took many of their ideas of government from the Ancient Greeks.
- The Senate was the aristocratic and most influential governing (legislative) body until establishment of one-man rule under the empire;c.100BCE
-Controlled most of the executive offices
- Consul = executives
The Twelve Tables (c. 450 B.C.E) -- first law code
- Governed social relationships
- Subjected everyone to common legal principle(Blue from Kchan)
- S.P.Q.R. = “Senatus Populusque Romanus” = the Roman Senate and People acting together.
- Roman laws could only be passed by a vote of the Popular Assembly, or, Comitia Tributa.
- Balanced power of the government between three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial; same system as democracies today.
Rome maintained many colonies all over the Meditteranean and traded throughout the region too, but much of their interaction and influence came from military campaigns and conquest.

rome_at_height.jpg- Roman Empire stretched from Spain to Mesopotamia and from England to North Africa at it's height.

- Rome began to decline, c. 180 CE and after that was periodically invaded until it's collapse.

- The influence of Rome and Greece survived long after the classical civilizations dissolved.
Romans had a pagan religion based on Mythology at first, but slowly evolved in the way religion was percieved and adopted other religions.
- The Romans worshiped by performing rituals and sacrifices. If they were performed properly the Romans believed the gods would aid them.
- Many of the gods were named after the planets example Jupiter, Mars.
- Certain gods were the "patrons" of certain human activities (metalworking, hunting, etc).
- Religious tolerance was a policy among most government leaders.

- There were priests for the supervision of religion in general and specialized priests for particular deities.
- The Romans in the upper classes were dissatisfied by the lack of explanation and guidance for human nature and society or ethical thought.
- Aristole (the great philosopher) believed that there must be a balance in human behavior; unlike politics and the "excess of the gods themselves".
- Stoics emphasized an inner moral independence; strict discipline of the body; personal bravery; An ethical system that would later be blended with religions like Christianity.
Roman literature, poetry, art, and architecture were influenced greatly by that of the Greeks.

- Roman writers and poets made significant contributions to poetry and definition of poetic form that would be used long after in Western
literature. (Never created epics like the Greek Illiad and Odyssey)

- Roman sculptors created life-like busts and statues of Emperors and other important people.

- Roman historians tried to link Roman history and mythology with that of the Greeks.
Many new technologies were designed and/or invented during the time of the Roman Empire.
- Aqueducts, and advanced systems of plumbing
"All roads lead to Rome"

- The arch; architectural technique
- Fast drying cement
- War-machines: seige engine,ballista (a catapult), etc.
- Candles: sticks of animal fat; edible.
- Magnifying glass, (followed by the telescope)
- Cork soles (left and right shoes)
- Public baths with heated pools, gymnasiums, libraries
- Postal system
- Calendar with months
- Street lighting
- Extensive road system

Roman Empire

Key Terms: Greece and Rome

Olympic Games - an athletic competition for which Greek city-states gathered every four years; brought fame to the victor; Greek emphasis on heroism as part of society and culture; games established in Olympia, Greece in 776 BCE

Peloponnesian War - (431 - 404 BCE) War between Athens and Sparta over power in Greece; Greece divided into allies of Athens and of Sparta (and neutral states); Sparta, with its militaristic society, was victorious and suppressed Athens influence and further conquest of smaller states.

Direct Democracy - Assemblies of citizens (property owning men) meeting every 10 days to make public decisions; established in Athens in the 5th century BCE; executive officers chosen and reviewed by the assembly- served short terms; though few Athenians were citizens, this was still the first known and practiced democracy in the world.

Roman Government - made up the Senate: mainly aristocrats who held all executive positions in office; 2 consuls shared primary executive power; in times of emergency, senate could chose a temporary dictator to rule until the crisis is solved; city-states were different in Rome than Greece because local freedom was accepted in many regions; government was focused on military conquest;
Cicero - A member of the Roman senate and a Roman writer; his political writing tended to be aligned with ideas in Confucianism but focused more on a legislative assembly to make laws rather than a hierarchy itself.

Stoics - founded by Zeno of Citium in 300s BCE; emphasized moral independence; ideas that became part of Christianity later on. There wasn't an established religion in Greece or Rome so these ideas weren't exactly religious.
Aristotle - Greek philosopher (384 - 322 BCE) and student of Plato; he stressed that balance and moderation in human behavior was healthier than focusing on politics; Creation of ethical systems was widespread in Hellinistic Period.
Socrates - (Born 469 BCE) Questioned conventional wisdom; his goal was to "improve the souls of the people". Taught Plato.

Plato - pupil of Socrates; presented the idea of human reason reaching 3 perfect forms: True, Good, and Beautiful. Encompassed all of nature; made human spirituality less important
Greece and Rome Comparative
The mediterranean was the worlds center of trade in the Classical Period so it's no suprise that it was the geographic location of two of the greatest and most influential civilizations of the era. Rome, which thrived and gained power after Greece's time had passed, shared many of the same political and cultural beliefs with them. Intellectuals like Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates introduced ideas that lessened the importance of human spirituality, similar to Confucianism. This occurred in the two empires because neither had a basis in or ever established a major religion. Both the governments of Greece and Rome were forms of democracy. Greek democracy was first developed in the city-state of Athens as an assembly of Athenian citizens to decide on public issues and procedure. The Roman version of Greek democracy lacked many aspects that democracy holds today. In fact, their government was made up of an aristocratic senate and two elected consuls; basically an oligarchy. Roman government was very militaristic and often focused on conquest and expansion for the glory of Rome. The economies of both Greece and Rome flourished, largely due to the effects of slavery. Slavery was a key component in the success of the economic system since free labor created excess profits. Grain, grapes, and olives were staple crops in Rome. Greece and Rome (but especially Rome) connected to the rest of the world through commerce, trading throughout their Mediterranean region as well as East Asia and India. Greeks and Romans believed in gods based on myths and legends, despite their lack of established religion. Greek myths expalined natural phenomenon that otherwise could not be explained and dictated stories and interactions with the gods. Romans adopted the same set of gods from the Greeks after Greece declined. Romans created far more technological advancements including
aqueducts, arches, cement, street lighting, a postal system, and more. In many ways Greece and Rome were very alike, following the same cultural ideals up to a point, but The two differed on thier forms of government and policies on trade and military action.