Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey
Western Intrusions and Crisis: Egypt
  • Turks nearly succeeded in capturing Vienna, Austria in 1683.
  • Turks slowly lost Hungary and Transylvania from
  • The Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 and the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718 weakened the Turks in Europe.
  • Lost substantial territory in conflicts with Russia during the reign of Peter and Catherine.
  • Janissaries ended up devolving the empire by refusing to adapt new technologies and tactics, halting advances.
  • Sultans made progress in politics, economy, and the military in the 1800s.
  • Secularized despite protests by the Islamic clergy.
  • (1839 – 1876CE): The Tanzimat reforms encouraged greater religious tolerance for non-Muslims living in the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Napoleanic Wars, coupled with nationalistic ideas, led to uprisings in the Turkish states.
  • The Greek War of Independence in 1821 caused the Greeks to separate from the empire in 1832.
  • The Young Turks - A group of pro-Western Ottoman army officers that didn't support the sultans; due to their repeated failures to strengthen the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Young Turks aligned with Germany in hopes of reforming the empire themselves.
  • From 1911 – 1913CE, the Italians seized the Ottomans last provinces in North Africa.
  • The Ottomans were defeated in the two Balkan wars as well.
  • After WWI, the empire was replaced by the Turkish state: Turkey.
  • Egypt fell out of Ottoman rule and was brought into European influence.
  • Muhammad Ali's grandson Ismail, decided to build a canal across the Suez land bridge to link the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.
  • The construction of the canal led to European domination.
  • The canal revolutionized modern shipping.
  • Thousands of Egyptians died during its construction.
  • In 1875 Britain bought all of Egypt's shares; allowing them to interfere in local politics easily.
  • 1881 – Egyptian military revolted against the khedive.
  • Britain assumed governmental power despite the khedive’s control of the state.


The Decline of the Qing Empire


MI – The Qing Dynasty collapsed due to internal struggle, weak leadership, and the British introduction of opium to the Chinese market.
  • Qianlong – last effective ruler of the Qing Dynasty. ( 1736-1795CE)
    • Weak leadership afterward led to swift decline.
  • Maintaining the northern and western borders of China was becoming increasingly expensive.
  • Rapid population increases weakened the fragile economy.
    • The White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804CE) was a direct result of the people’s frustration over the worsening economy.
  • China only allowed Europeans to trade on a small number of ports and only accepted small amounts of European goods.
    • China was too powerful to conquer – tea was their most significant commodity.
    • China’s superiority complex kept them from trading excessively with Europeans.
    • The Middle Kingdom was the center of the universe away from all of the barbarians.
  • The British used opium to get incorporated into the Chinese markets.
    • British began flooding China with opium grown in northeastern India.
    • Opium became very popular in China and the British maintained control of 80% of the opium.
    • This illegal trade outraged the Chinese government.
    • The economy declined as productivity slowed.
  • Opium War: (1839 – 1842CE) – The Qing government tried to stop the spread of opium by arresting dealers.
    • Fearing the profits from their Chinese opium trade would be lessened – or even lost – the British government used it as an excuse to start a war.
  • In the first battle the British won easily and established the Treaty of Nanking, in which the Chinese had to open 5 more ports to foreign trade, lower tariffs on British goods, and grant rights to areas in China where British traders lived.
    • British law ruled those areas.
    • China surrendered Hong Kong to Britain.
  • The treaties that followed legalized opium and the opium trade; opened more ports to foreign trade.
    • Powers were granted to the Portuguese, French, British, Americans, and Russians who set up economic concessions in Chinese territory.
    • Japan, Germany, and Italy gained smaller economic concessions.
MI – Limited reforms were not enough to halt the decline of the Qing Dynasty, which failed due to rebellion and was replaced by the Republic of China.

  • Taiping Rebellion: (1850 – 1864CE) – The most devastating civil war in world history.
    • Claimed 20 to 30 million Chinese lives.
    • Second deadliest war next to WWII.
  • Xiuquan started the uprising in order to become a government official despite having failed the civil service exam.
    • He convinced himself that he was the brother of Jesus Christ and was sent from heaven to create supreme peace in the Kingdom. (???)
    • Organized an army of followers who shared his resentment of the high Qing taxes and oppressive rule.
  • Xiuquan ruled one third of China at the peak of his rule.
    • By the 1860s the rebellion was beginning to lose momentum and retreat.
    • Xiuquan committed suicide in 1864.
    • Rebellion left China in ruins and the Qing government was thrown into chaos.
  • The self strengthening movement, a reform movement in the 1860s, attempted but failed to have lasting positive effects on the disorganized empire.
  • Cixi ruled China from 1878 – 1908CE.
    • She was a strong leader who opposed modernization and all reforms.
    • The Qing government became more oppressive due to her policies.
    • Cixi died in 1908 CE.
  • Open Door Policy: (1898 CE) – allowed all nations to have equal access to Chinese markets.
  • Boxer Rebellion: (1898 CE) – Chinese anger towards foreign influence and control caused the rebellion of the "boxers" (martial arts experts).
    • They attacked foreign residences and besieged foreign legations.
    • The rebellion was quelled by foreign troops, who forced the Qing government to pay a hefty fine.
  • Sun Yat-sen: (1866 – 1925CE) – He united many opposing groups into the Revolutionary Alliance and promoted nationalism/democracy.
  • The Chinese Nationalist Party was founded in 1912.
  • Sun's successor was defeated and a communist government took power in 1949.