Notes on China
P. 685 – 689
Toward Revolution in China
MI – Although many Chinese initially expressed interest in the West, the rise of the Communist Party in China led to a period of political uncertainty.
  • May Fourth Movement (1919) – Western ideas became increasingly popular within Chinese culture.
    • Many Chinese began to protest the Japanese occupation of some rightfully Chinese lands.
      • The land was given to them by the Germans after they acquired it in WWI.
  • Li DaZhao was an intellectual who researched Marxist ideology and, through interpretation and observations, passed on his findings to students.
    • The Russian Revolution inspired many Chinese thinkers to study Marxism.
  • Mao Zedong was a student of Li DaZhao, and he became the first leader of the Communist Party of China, which unified China.
  • Chiang Kai-Shek founded and ran the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924.
    • His goal was to disband the Communist Party in China and reestablish the Nationalist Party as the controlling body in China.
  • Long March = when Mao led his troops on a 1000 mile walk to Shaxi, where the troops resided until the Japanese invasion of China in WWII.
  • The Nationalist Party assumed control of China in the 1920s.
P. 823 – 830
Mao’s China and Beyond
MI – The communist China that had been in power in different forms for many years, eventually gave way to a more flexible, open to free market China.
  • The People's Republic of China was established in 1949 by Mao Zedong.
    • Much effort was put into developing a stronger economy.
· Mao promoted the Mass Line Approach, which were agricultural cooperatives formed in 1955 after China had completely become a peasant kingdom eventually became farming collectives.
o Industrialization was recognized as the key to regaining their status as a great nation.
  • The Great Leap Forward (1958) was when Mao encouraged people to use their own materials to create their own goods.
  • He was against developing factories for industrialization which caused an economic disaster, enveloping the nation in famines while the birth rate was on the rise.
  • Jiang Qing, Mao Zedong's wife, used her husband’s power to implement equality for women in China
    • She was against old teachings that women were subordinate.
  • Her efforts were successful and women became close to equal to men.
    • Women still struggled to find jobs outside of their household, however.
  • Cultural Revolution (1965)
    • Mao had lost power, so in his final campaign he “inspired” students to form extremist groups like the Red Guard, which were rag-tag armies that fought against Mao's rivals.
· The Gang of Four, led by Jiang Qing, tried to gain control of the government from Deng.
o They planned a military coup against the pragmatists, but they were arrested and imprisoned.
· Xiaoping opened China to Western influences and capitalist (but not democratic) developments.
· Farming communes were discontinued, private initiative was promoted, and private enterprises coupled with economic experimentation began.

Leader Analysis Sheet
Name of Leader: Mao Zedong
Lifespan: 1893 – 1976
Title: Chairman of the Communist Party of China / Chairman Mao
Country/region: China
Years in Power: 1943 – 1976
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power:

  • China is in a weakened state and broken up into several separate groups struggling for power.
  • Economic dominance by western powers
  • Majority of the population was peasantry and a small group was proletariat
  • There is little industrialization and the economy is in a rut.
Ideology, Motivation, Goals:
  • Inspired by Li Biao to make an effort to relieve the poorly represented peasantry from their strife.
  • Aspired to restore China to it’s former glory in previous dynasties.
  • Anti-Westernization
  • A healthy resentment for elitism.
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power :
  • Participation in the Korean Stalemate and Vietnam
  • Mass line approach
  • Implementing five-year plans
  • Great Leap Forward
  • Attempted to lower birth rate through child restriction laws
  • Cultural Revolution
  • Established the People's Republic of China
  • Attempted the Great Leap Forward, but failed and caused famine
Short-Term effects:

  • Limited the number of children a family could have. (Population control)
  • Brought famine upon the people of China temporarily.
  • Severely reduced Chinese productivity.
Long-Term Effects
  • Establish the People's Republic of China.
  • Opened China up to Western influence.
P. 848 – 849: Democratic Protest and Repression in China

  • The May Fourth protest was an example of civil disobedience.
  • Riots, demonstrations, strikes, and protests are making China decline farther.
  • China’s government honestly wants to assist the citizens and to keep them safe and prosperous.
  • China is hoping to improve its conditions and image.
  • Chinese officials know that the support and effort of the people is what will be the force that will one day bring the nation back to life.

1. Li Peng believes the Chinese people protesting are the major cause of the turmoil for the government.

2. He attempts to persuade the citizens to stop protesting by warning them of the condition that China will stay in if they continue what they are doing.

3. Li Peng only wants China to aspire to be as prosperous as it had been back in the old days. He is trying to reinvent China. His arguments support communism because he supports industrialization.

4. The Chinese did not accept democracy due to their superiority complex; believing that the system was unfit to govern their great nation and that it would only cause more problems.

Analyze the changes and continuities in Chinese politics from 1914 to the present
  • While China has been fighting to maintain a strong central political structure since 1914, the switch from the Nationalist Party to the Communist Party marked a major change in leadership, while the significance of communist ideals remained constant.

Analyze the changes in Chinese Society from 1914 to the present
  • Chinese society from 1914 to the present has changed in that women achieved equality socially, whil; However, all people in Chinese society have remained under strict communist rule.
  • *

Thesis Statement: Throughout the 20th Century, Russia and China were somewhat similar in their social developments in that women's rights were improved, and there was a period of collectivism leading to social disruptions in each country. Hwever, Russian isolationism was abandoned near the end of the period while China remained much more secluded.

Topic Sentence #1: Chinese women gained near-equality under the reforms of Jiang Qing while Russian women gained many rights after the disbanding of the USSR.
Evidence: Mao Zedong's "Women Hold up Half the Heavens" and Jiang Qing's reforms, women in workforce Russia
Direct Comparison: Women allowed in the work force in russia to Mao Zedong's "Women Hold up Half the Heavens" and Jiang Qing's reforms
Analysis: Both were major leaps forward for women's rights that came during periods of major social reforms.

Topic Sentence #2: A peroid of collectivism was disruptive in both China and Russia, causing the disruption of classes and harming the economy.
Evidence: The Great Leap Forward in China, Mao Zedong, Russian modernization and industrialization attempts, Stalin, state only.
Direct Comparison: Mao Zedong's approach vs Stalin's
Analysis: The turmoil caused by the disruptive collectivism severely hurt Russina and China's lower class and the social structure.

Topic Sentence #3: Russian isolationism was thrown away by the end of the period while China still had little to do wth the global economy.
Evidence: Vladimir Putin's rise to power, democracy and capitalism, XiaoPing, China's openness to Western influences and capitalist, but not democratic, development
Direct Comparison:Putin's approach and democracy, vs Xiaoping's approach and capitalistic influence only.
Analysis:China wanted to remain a communist nation with western influence only affecting their culture and economy through capitalism, but Russian's embraced democracy over time and are now a Republic.

Thesis Statement: Throughout the 20th Century, Russia and China were somewhat similar in their political developments in that they both had a communist regime rise to power, had leaders that began to change their country's policies, and began to embrace a socialistic or capitalistic society to some extent. However, China remained a fundamentally communist entity whilst Russia began a larger transition to globalization. Many countries all over the world were already in the process of globalization.

Topic Sentence #1: The communist party in each country consolidated power, with the rise of the Communist Party in China under Mao Zedong and the Bolsheviks in Russia under Lenin

Evidence: Bolsheviks, CPC, Lenin, Stalin, Mao Zedong, People's Liberation Army, Red Army
Direct Comparison: Red Army vs. the People's Liberation Army
Analysis: Both were examples of leaders using their influence to consolidate power; through loyalty.

Topic Sentence #2: The policies of Stalin and Mao Zedong were later abandoned and replaced once leaders such as Mikhail Gorbachev and Deng Xiaoping came to power.

Evidence: de-Stalinization, Glasnost, Perestroika, disbanding the Gang of Four, communism --> socialism (more in russia), pragmatism
Direct Comparison: pragmatism to de-Stalinization, glasnost, and perestroika,
Analysis: Shifting their country's policies to be more open allowed them to adapt to a changing global economy.

Topic Sentence #3: The transition from communist countries to more socialistic or capitalistic nations was more apparent in Russia, where Putin swore on his commitment to democracy while Chinese leader Xiaoping refused a large transition to a full market economy or democracy.

Evidence: Socialism's spread
Direct Comparison: Putin vs Xiaoping
Analysis: Putin promised to democratize and allow freedom of expression but still silenced some dissident media sources, while Xiaoping didn't even allow a full transition to occur; only letting western influences enter the country but remaining communist.