This mosaic is a portrait of Justinian surrounded by senators and soldiers. It is meant to illustrate the grandure of Justinian as the last Emperor of Rome and the First Emperor of Byzantine.

This map illustrates the extent to which the Byzantine Empire ever expanded. (peaked in the 6th century)

Constantinople is current day Istanbul.

Outline of Byzantine Empire and Justinian's Achievements
Foundation of Byzantium
· Began after the Romans established Constantinople as the eastern capital of the declining empire
· Controlled the Balkan peninsula, the northern Middle East (Levant), northern Africa, and the Mediterranean
· Latin was the language of the courts and Greek was the language of common people
o Greek allowed Byzantines to study the Hellenistic doctrines

· Conquered and Hellenized the Egyptians and Syrians
  • Would largely trade with the Mediterranean and the Middle East.
· Bureaucratic system; emperorship
· Fended off invasion from the Sasanid in the east, and Germanic Tribes to the west
Justinian's Achievements
· Made Greek the official language
· Conquered old territories of the Roman Empire
· Codification of Roman Law
· Allowed previously excluded peoples, such as the Egyptians and Syrians, to participate in the Byzantine bureaucracy
· Re-introduced Roman architecture into the Byzantine Empire.
· Incorporated newer styles as well, like domes, creating an imperial and elegant motif;
o Hagia Sophia: Beautiful church created by the inspired styles and architecture.

The annotated document above is a Roman Law book. It dictates the laws and presents them in a way that is efficient and organized. It also poses questions and summarizes what law is to them. The Roman govenment divides law into two basic parts and then divides them further throughout the paper. The two basic sectors of Roman law are "Public" and "Private" law. Public law refers to the government of the Roman Empire while Private law refers to the interests of individuals. The Public law should refer to the public, as in the people of Rome. Further divisions follow, including: Natural Law, Law of Nations, and Civil Law. Nature law is what Romans believe all creatures except man observe. Civil Lawis the that which each individual nation upholds, while the Law of Nations are laws that are common to many nations (common among men). The document discusses the status of free people and slaves and how one becomes or is released from slavery. When discussing marriage, it extensively listed different scenarios and made rulings on them for what was proper. The document raised many questions, but a statement at the very beginning of the Justinian Code sums up its purpose. "Justice is the constant and perpetual wish to render everyone his due. Jurisprudence is... the science of the just and the unjust."

Notes: Document 2 and 3

  • Doc 2: property and how you canobtain property.
  • Public places belong to all.
  • Natural law: If someone gives you a gift it is yours...
  • If a slave ran away it was free
  • *Strict in some cases, lenient in others.*
  • Laws rooted in religion; Christianity
Doc 3: Obligations and Trading
  • (Obligations - terms of agreement )

1. Who were Cyril and Methodius? What did they accomplish?
Cyril and Methodius were Orthodox Christian missionaries. They attempted to convert the regions of current day Czech and Slovak but failed because other missionaries had previously taken root there (Particularly Roman Catholic). Cyril and Methodius created a script from their efforts in the Balkans and in Russia. It was based on the Greek alphabet. The Slavic alphabet is still known as Cyrillic.

2. How did events in the Middle East affect the demographics of the East Central borderlands?
The regions of Poland, Czech, and Hungary adopted Roman Catholicism and the Latin alphabet. It was a place for intellectuals from the east and west to correspond. After the conversion to Christianity, the region was organized into separate, aristocratic, regional monarchies. A great exodus of Jews fleeing from the Middle East and intolerance in Western Europe arrived in Eastern Europe by this time. A strong emphasis on education allowed the Jewish society to thrive apart from the rest of Eastern Europe, keeping their religious traditions intact.

3. Outline the development of the Kievan Rus.
· Military and governmental structures were set up by Scandinavian traders
· Rurik of Denmark: 1st prince
· Kievan Rus became popular trading center
· Vladimir I (980-1015) converted country to Orthodox Christianity
o Trains Russians to become priests
· Russian Orthodox becomes new branch of Chrisitanity
· Yoroslav is last of the Kievan rulers
o He issued legal codification.
o Built churches; translated religious literature from Greek to Slavic.

4. What important decision was made by Vladimir I?
Vladimir I had to decide the national religion Russia would adopt. His decided upon Orthodox Christianity because of the compatibility with Russian life and neighboring Byzantium also observed it. Since Russia and the Byzantine Empire were bound by faith they could be allies. The Russian Orthodox Church was born!

5. What were some of the major similarities and differences between Byzantium and the Kievan Rus?
· Religion – Orthodox Christianity,
· Society based on law code.
· The Kievan Rus had less political organized than Byzantium.
· Kievan princes tried to create marriage ties.
· The Kievan Rus had separate system of education the Byzantines
· Different bureaucratic system then the Byzantines.

6. What factors led to the decline of the Kievan Rus?
The decline began from disputes over succession to the throne. Asian invaders harassed merchants and made trading nearly impossible. The Mongols invaded Russia and parts of Eastern Europe (Including Turkey). Tatars (Turkic ethnic group) were fierce invaders, yet they allowed Christianity to live on. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 by the Turks, Russia claimed that Eastern Europe included Russia. Western Europe was finally free from outside control.

7. Summary: The Problem of Boundaries, Eastern and Western Europe
Cultural divides still exist in Eastern and Western Europe as a result of conflicts over religious differences, lifestyle, and territories. Europe is a perfect example since it is directly split with one side predominantly Orthodox Christian and the other predominantly Catholic. Countries in the region of the Baltic States were located in the middle of this great divide, and did not convert to Catholicism until the 14th century CE. These boundaries affected the development of Poland, Hungary, and Lithuania, who were all still loosely organized after the post-classical era. Sharing the same beliefs is what caused countries like Poland and Hungary to lean towards Eastern European nations with a common religion. Wars and conquests were commonplace in these regions. Outside invasion was a constant threat to these in-between nations, but after Mongol control, Europeans on either side tried to start over.

Summary: chapter
Eastern Europe was a developing region that eventually developed their own religion and had significant cultural differences. The major factor that contributed to the changes in the Eastern European area was the long-standing Byzantine Empire. Byzantium controlled the Balkan peninsula, the levant, north africa, and the mediterranean. Their borders were constantly under pressure. Their law codes and bureaucratic systems were altered and fit to work with other empires in the region. The Kievan Rus' and Russian nations adapted the systems of law and bureaucracy.