Notes P. 435 - 440
The Atlantic Slave Trade
MI - Slave trade began when Portugal established "factories" along the African coast to combat shortages in manpower / labor. Demand for slaves increased after Portuguese Madeira began producing sugar.
· Portuguese ships reached the Cape of Good Hope in 1587 and established factories.
o The most important factory was El Mina (situated in the gold-rich forest zone)
· Local leaders allowed the establishment of factories and benefited from the European products and Portuguese defense.
o Portuguese received ivory, pepper, animal skins, and gold.
o Sometimes traded with other African merchants (Mali and Songhay)
· Portuguese took advantage of pre-existing trade routes.
· Trade was basis of relationship with Africans; more complex political, religious, and social relations arose afterward.
· Missionary efforts sprang up in Benin, Kongo, and other kingdoms
o Once Nzinga Mvemba converted to Christianity, his kingdom (Kongo) became a Christianized.
· The Portuguese considered Africans to be savages, but were capable of conversion to Christ.
· Other European nations followed Portugal's lead (Dutch, English, and French setup trading stations and exerted influence through military and diplomatic means)
o Foundation of Luanda (Angola) and outpost on Mozambique Island
· 1441 CE - Portugal starts to import slaves through trade with African rulers
o By 1460CE it was 500 imported slaves per year.
· The emergence of sugar plantations in Madeira and (eventually) Brazil - to fill labor demands - was additional motivation to the slave trade.

Trend Towards Expansion
MI - Between 1500 and 1800 CE, the number of slaves involved in the trans-Atlantic triangular trade increased dramatically.
· Between 1450 and 1850, 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic, but only 10-11 million made it due to a 20% mortality rate.
· As many as 1/3 captured slaves died as a result of forced marches and slaving wars.
· Demand for slaves remained high due to high mortality and low fertility. (Not enough women)
· Slave population in the U.S. tended to expand through natural population growth and made up 1/4 of the population while in the Caribbean slaves made up 80-90 percent.
· The Caribbean and Brazil were major slave destinations.
o Brazil had 3.5 - 5 million slaves, or, 42% of its total population
· The majority of slaves were exported from Senegambia region.
· The Gold Coast and the Slave Coast (Benin - 10,000 slaves a year) caused wars in Central Africa. (result of the slave trade)

Demographic Patterns
MI – Demographic shifts were caused by the growing slave trade not only in the New World, but in Africa as well; The population was around 1/2 of what it could have been without exportation of slaves (By the 19th century).
· Slave trade was centered around men since most work involved physical laboring.
· Most female slaves = concubines and domestic servants
· Some figures suggest that Africa's 25 million population was 1/2 of what it would have been without the slave trade
o A result of the male-dominated character of trade and captive women and children in Africa.
o New food crops created a resource for population recovery.

Organization of the Trade
MI - An increasingly complex trade system was established between Europe and Africa to facilitate exchange of slaves.
· European nations display power through control of slave ports.
o Portugal dominant until 1630.
o Dutch became competitors after they seized El Mina in 1637.
o By 1660s, England engaged in slave trade for colonies in Jamaica, Barbados, and Virginia, triggering the creation of the Royal African Company; French major carrier in 18th century.
· Europeans who went to ports faced inherent dangers in disease; 10% of the Royal African Company's employees were forced to return to England from illness.
· Europeans paid local rulers with abstract forms of currency, such as gold bars, iron bars, etc.
o Spanish "Indies piece" system ruled that women and children were less expensive.
· Each nation tried to establish a monopoly on slave trading in certain regions, while private merchants attempted to bypass them.
o Slavery became immensely profitable (300% returns on voyages + shipbuilding industry boost)
o Became dangerous (profit margins - 5-10%; still more stable than many other careers)
· Triangular trade became central in Atlantic economy:
o Slaves sent to New World à raw goods sent to Europe à manufactured goods sent to Africa.
· Slavery contributed to continuing development of capitalism. ($$$)

Notes P. 440 - 448
African Societies, Slavery, and the Slave Trade
MI - The introduction of the Atlantic slave trade significantly altered the political organization in Africa.

· Interactions with Europeans changed the character of slavery in Africa, yet pre-existent forms of slavery in Africa may have helped increase the European’s success.
· African societies held each other as slaves before the Atlantic trade system was set up.
o Their slaves were tied together through kinships. (Non-egalitarian)
o Enslavement of women was a central feature of African slavery and led to practices like polygamy: having more than one wife. (Status of women declined)
· Ahmad Baba of Timbuktu spoke out against slavery of Muslims.
· Africans would not enslave their own people, but their neighbors, forming large centralized states.

Slaving and African Politics
MI - African politics moved towards consolidation and centralizing after the Europeans got involved in the slave trade.
· Western and Central Africa was full of small, fragmented states
o The slave trade led to widespread consolidation, usually through warfare.
· A counter movement to large scale slavery saw some societies form ideas about self-sufficiency and anti-authoritarianism.
· Coastal states a seeking to gain power through the slave trade were forced to compete with the European factories.
· Central African states began to grow in power and influence thanks to the slave trade.

Asante and Dahomey
MI – The opportunities presented by the new Atlantic slave trade particularly benefitted the African states of Asante and Dahomey.

· Asante = a state that benefited greatly from slave trade.
o Leader title: asantehene
o Osei Tutu helped to expand nation through military reform and unification.
o Received formal recognition from the Dutch.
o Most powerful state on the Gold Coast (sold slaves and gold)
· State of Benin tried to avoid major participation in the slave trade.
· Dahomey = a state whose trade dealt with primarily guns and slaves.
o Eradicated royal families and customs of the area in expansion in order to centralize.
o King Agaja gained control of Whydah, an important coastal port.
o Exported 1.8 million slaves from 1640 - 1890.

East Africa and the Sudan
MI – Another wave of Islamic expansion swept over much of East Africa, but it maintained a strong Bantu-speaking base.

· After the Songhay decline, the Fulani turned to a more radical and violent form of Islam.
· Commerce continued on the east coast of Africa, just with a constant European presence.
· Goods traded with central Africa included slaves, ivory, and gold.
o Slaves from the east coast were commonly exported to Arabia and the Middle East to serve as domestic servants.
· Some islands in the Indian ocean were host to plantations, like Mauritius.
o Those islands could have slave populations of up to 100,000.
· Interior of East Africa had many people from Bantu language group.
· Islam spread through Sudan (new Sufi variant via Fulani people).

White Settlers and Africans in South Africa
MI - During the 18th and 19th century, South Africa was host to major demographic change due to the European intrusion from the Dutch and British.

· Dutch Colony in South Africa came in violent contact with Bantu-speaking tribes.
· In 16th century, Bantu people occupied southeastern Africa while hunters lived in Kalahari desert in the West.
· Chiefdoms comprised the main political unit.
o Created competition for leadership positions.
· Cape Colony farms employed Indonesian, Asian, and African slaves.
· Independent boer states = voortrekkers
o Great Trek happened after British took control of formerly Dutch Cape Colony and banned slavery in 1834.

The Mfecane and Zulu Rise to Power
MI - The Zulu, along with several other tribes rise to power, leading to continuous tribal warfare called mfecane.
· Zulu unified under Shaka Zula in 1818.
o He reformed military organization; new weapons, tight authoritarian control.
· Rise of African states lead to “wars of crushing and wandering”; mfecane.
o Mass migrations begin due to constant warfare.
· Zulu clashed with South Africa Dutch called Boers, who moved north of South Africa after the British took control.
Notes P. 448 - 454
Slave Lives
MI - Slaves were surrounded by poor conditions and quality of life.
(work and transportation)

· Slaves were often loaded onto ships in horrid conditions by the hundreds before their trans-Atlantic journeys.
o As a result, the morality rate was around 18% (prior to the 1800s)
· The treacherous routes was called The Middle Passage
· Still, Africans retained traditions, cultures, and beliefs and mixed them with New World cultures.

African in the Americas
MI - Slaves supplied the main labor force for the New World.

· Mixed race and creole slaves were often assigned to work as domestic servants instead of field workers. (manumission)
· Indigenous slaves were eventually replaced by African slaves in the New World
o Africans were typically better suited for the strenuous conditions.
· Although most slaves were agricultural laborers, others had occupations such as artisans, street vendors, and household (domestic) servants.

American Slave Societies
MI – Several seperate social hierarchies were formed after the introduction of saltwater slaves.

· Saltwater slaves were slaves imported from Africa in the trans-Atlantic middle passage.
· Creole slaves = mulattos; a result of the exploitation of African slaves by whites.
o Strict hierarchies formed as a result: whites on top, slaves on the bottom, and a variety of free coloreds in the middle.
· African religious leaders still had influence within the African slave community.
· In the Caribbean, slave plantations lead to 80% of the population being black
o Brazil had 35% slaves
· In America, whites allowed African slaves to reproduce, reducing the need for importation.

The People and Gods in Exile
MI - Africans tried to retain their sense of culture through religion and other means and often led to revolt.

· Slaves retained their sense of African culture, but restrictions of the New World society didn’t allow them to be completely free.
· As a result of separate influences, slaves were converted to either Catholicism (Spain and France) or Protestantism (England).
o African religions of obeah, candomble, and vodon still continued to exist.
· Resistance and rebellion were key trends in slave history:
· Recalcitrance = runaway communities; Palmares, Suriname; Afro-American culture

The End of the Slave Trade and the Abolition of Slavery
MI - The slave trade ended after a combined effort of economic, political, religious, and philosophical pressures.

· Economic, political, and religious changes in Europe led to abolition.
o Difficult to identify a direct link between economics and the end of slavery.
· Anti-slavery intellectuals such as Adam Smith and Jean-Jacques Rousseau criticized slavery on moral grounds.
· William Wilberforce influenced the British abolition of the slave trade
o Spain, Portugal, and others nations followed.
o Slavery was only completely abolished after Brazil did away with it in 1888.