Notes P.636 - 643
Triggers for Change
· WWI and WWII caused massive loss of economic, demographic, and political vitality.
· The collapse of European imperial dominance and decolonization.
o Anti-colonial nationalism.
o Amassed military powers of the colonies.
· Collapse of the Soviet Union (USSR)
· U.S becomes only superpower
· Formation of the European Union (EU), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the United Nations (UN).
· Rapid growth of technological innovation.
o New transportation and communication devices
§ Radios, Television, Satellites, Internet
o Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs); Nukes.
· Demographic explosion
o Urbanization and urban poverty.
o Population increases in general.
The Big Changes
· Political Organization:
o Democracy
o Totalitarianism
§ Communism
§ Fascism
o Authoritarianism
§ Dictatorship
§ One-Party Rule
· Efforts to Improve Standing in the World Economy.
o Japan becomes major industrial power.
o Oil-producing states use their resources to gain power and influence.
o Work towards becoming a major exporter.
§ China, India, Brazil, etc.
· Import substitution = replacing imports with local products.
· Marxism vs capitalism during the Cold War.
· Religion
o Fundamentalism
o Missionary activity.
· Changing role of women.
· Globalization
o Global cultural change revolving around consumerism.
· Migration from third-world countries to developed nations.
· Pollution problems and global warming.
Continuity
· Industrialization
· Control of African territories.
o Rural areas in India retained older economic and social forms.
· 30% of the world population is connected via the internet.
· Economic inequality
· Resistance to changes such as gender relations.
o Fundamentalism developed in resistance of secularism.
· Societal values were built up and established.
o Americans had the desire to maintain their sovereignty.
o Chinese valued conformity and order.
o Russian authoritarianism.
Impact on Daily Life: Emotion and Behavior
· Anthropologists say people of paticyular regions are programmed to have a certain emotional response to something.
· Nations attempted to beat emotional passivity.
· Emotional connection to individual children increased as birth rates drastically decreased.
· Globalization:
o Advertising emotions - romantic love
o An increase in imports of items that expressed love in the Chinese economy after it was opened to the global stage in 1978.
Societies and Trends (By Chapters)
· Chapter 28: WWI effects
· Chapter 29: The World War interlude
· Chapter 30: WWII
· Chapter 31: Cold War
· Chapter 32: Latin America
· Chapter 33: Decolonization and Africa
· Chapter 34: Asia and the Pacific Rim
· Chapter 35-36: Key trends in the transition from 20th to 21th century


Maps on P.637
These maps illustrate how following WWI, colonization was replaced by multinational corporations. Regions previously under another nations control either revolted or were abandoned by the colonial power. These places became their own nations, with their own contributions to the global economy. Multinational corporations were a more suitable form of "conquest", because this allowed the businesses to begin production and distribution of their products all over the world. So the world was, in a sense, colonized by business.


20th Century Nationalism

Balkans.jpg
I see / it means image: The Balkans

I see
It means
World leaders of Russia, Britain, France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary

A boiling pot labeled "Balkan Troubles"

Leaders trying to contain the "troubles"
The five world powers involved with the growing tensions beforeWWI.

Balkan nationalism and Serbia's growing influence, protesting the Austrian-Hungarian rule.

Illustrates how unstable the Alliance system was. Could create a chaotic war between several imperial powers, and engulf the world.
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/President_Wilson%27s_Fourteen_Points
How does the introduction relate to the causes of WWI?
-The introduction describes the secrecy of alliances between nations that caused The Great War. "...so is also the day of secret covenants entered into in the interest of particular governments and likely at some unlooked-for moment to upset the peace of the world."
What does Wilson suggest was the reason for American entry into the war?
- Wilson suggests the Americans entered the war to protect their economy, and to a smaller extent their allies "We entered this war because violations of right had occurred which touched us to the quick and made the life of our own people impossible unless they were corrected and the world secure once for all against their recurrence." Self determinism (right of the people to determine their own government); moral obligation of Americans.
How would you summarize the main objectives of the 14 Points?
- Open diplomacy, disarmarment "Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety." restoration of soveriegnity to nations (conditions prior to war), making alliances public, establishment of an international meeting (League of Nations).
How might the colonies of Britain and France react to the 14 points?
- The colonies themselves would be open to the prospect. Ex. "All French territory should be freed"

China

Russia

Latin America 1914 - Present

East and Southeast Asia

The West

India

Middle East

Africa

Genocides